The reference list displays full citations for any sources you have incorporated into your writing, by quoting or paraphrasing the authors, referring to data or statistics collected by the authors, or reproducing images created by them.
The list is arranged in alphabetical order by the surname of the first named author of a work, the first word of a corporate author name, or the first word of the title of a work when no author is named.
The core elements of an APA reference citation are author, date, title, and source. The general format for an APA reference citation is: Author. (Date). Title [Format]. Source.
Definitions, formats, and guidelines for describing each element accurately and consistently are defined in Chapter 9 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition.
For more information and examples see APA Style: Reference examples
Individual or group authors are listed in Lastname, Initial(s) format:
Corporate authors are listed by name and may include any of these:
Other contributors may include:
In general, publication date, but other dates may be used:
The date format may be displayed variously, depending on the source:
Italic Title Format for works that stand alone:
Kitzman, Robert. (2020). Designing babies: How technology is changing the ways we create children. Oxford University Press.
Italic Source Format for works that are part of a greater whole:
Example (journal article)
Liao, S. M. (2019). Designing humans: A human rights approach. Bioethics, 33(1), 98-104. https://doi.org/10.1111/bioe.12519
Information for books may include: publisher name -- page range if only part of the book is used -- URL if the book can be found only online
Information for articles may include: journal title -- volume and issue number -- page number or page range -- DOI (digital object identifier)
Information for online sources may include: name of website -- publisher of website -- social media site -- video hosting platform - URL
Author. (Date). Title. Source.