Conservation and diversity of the eukaryotic SAGA coactivator complex across kingdoms.
The SAGA complex is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional coactivator that regulates gene expression through its histone acetyltransferase and deubiquitylase activities, recognition of specific histone modifications, and interactions with transcription factors. Multiple lines of evidence indicate the existence of distinct variants of SAGA among organisms as well as within a species, permitting diverse functions to dynamically regulate cellular pathways. Our co-expression analysis of genes encoding human SAGA components showed enrichment in reproductive organs, brain tissues and the skeletal muscle, which corresponds to their established roles in developmental programs, emerging roles in neurodegenerative diseases, and understudied functions in specific cell types. SAGA subunits modulate growth, development and response to various stresses from yeast to plants and metazoans. In metazoans, SAGA further participates in the regulation of differentiation and maturation of both innate and adaptive immune cells, and is associated with initiation and progression of diseases including a broad range of cancers. The evolutionary conservation of SAGA highlights its indispensable role in eukaryotic life, thus deciphering the mechanisms of action of SAGA is key to understanding fundamental biological processes throughout evolution. To illuminate the diversity and conservation of this essential complex, here we discuss variations in composition, essentiality and co-expression of component genes, and its prominent functions across Fungi, Plantae and Animalia kingdoms. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]