Citation is quoting or otherwise referring to an author or their work to illustrate a point or to support an argument in your own essay or research paper. When you do this, you must acknowledge the contribution of that author with an in-text citation and a bibliographic citation. An in-text citation is a short reference to that part of the work you have used within the body of your paper, and a bibliographic citation is a full citation included in a list at the end of your paper, formatted according to the style you are using - usually APA or MLA style.
Brief reference to an author’s work in the body of your paper, pointing your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list. MLA Style uses author-page format. APA style uses author-date format.
Footnotes and Endnotes
Notes placed at the bottom of a page or at the end of a chapter or a project with complete citation information. Chicago Notes and Bibliography (NB) style requires these instead of in-text citations.
List of cited works
List of full citations for all resources used, arranged alphabetically by authors’ last names. MLA style refers to this as Works Cited. APA Style and Chicago Author-Date style refer to this as References. Chicago NB style refers to this as Bibliography.
Do Cite It:
...when you quote or paraphrase someone else's words, ideas, analysis, or opinions
...when you use data collected or created by someone else
...when you use someone else's images or illustrations
Don't Cite It:
...when information is common knowledge, something your reader already knows
...when you use data you collected yourself, like an informal student poll or survey
...when you use your own images or illustrations
When in doubt, play it safe and cite it!
Quoting & Paraphrasing
Quoting: using exact words from a source
Paraphrasing: restating someone else's ideas in your own words
Quote when the exact wording is important to retain meaning:
Paraphrase to restate in your own words
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